Posted on October 4, 2011



Ceceng Salamudin[1]



Inquiry model is essential in developing instructional model in Quran Hadits. It can make instructional process more interesting and instructional goal can be more achieved. This research is literature study. So, to conduct the research, I use descriptive-qualitative method as research method and content analysis as technique of collecting and analyzing data. The result of the research is that the beginning study on inquiry is Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) that studies inquiry model based on natural science perspective and Michigan Social Science Curriculum Project that studies inquiry model based on social science perspective. Inquiry model is tightly related to theory of curiosity. The essence of inquiry model is connected to definition, characteristics and goal of inquiry model in teaching and learning process. In context of Quran Hadits subject, inquiry model can develop instructional materials and process. The research will use for teachers to develop instruction and for students to be more actively in instruction so that goal of education can be achieved.

Keywords: inquiry, curiosity, and instruction.



  1. A.    Introduction

According to Peter Kline, human being basically has instinct to learn when they were born. They always want to know and understand what happens in the universe. Unfortunately, the instinct is destroyed by traditional approach of instruction. Consequently, the students feel satisfied with ‘what we know now’ not with ‘how we can know more and more.’ [2]

Based on the reality, we have to find relevant approach, method, or model of instruction to apply for education today and it can indirectly “resist” the traditional approach of instruction. Inquiry is an alternative model we can choose and apply for making our education better even the best. By inquiry, we can return human to their instinct that is “to search to know” and the instinct is relevant with character of inquiry that is defined as ‘searching truth, information, or knowledge by asking or searching to know.’[3]

The article will review inquiry model applied in subject Quran Hadits. It will be started by reviewing the beginning study on inquiry, position of curiosity in inquiry model, essence of inquiry model, and inquiry model in subject Quran Hadits.


  1. B.     The Beginning Study of Inquiry Model

According to Schwab (1965) in Joyce, et. al, the beginning study on inquiry is on the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) that products curriculum patterns and teaching to use in biological subject in high school[4]. According to Lippit, Fox, dan Schaible (1969) in Joyce, et. al, another study on inquiry instruction is the Michigan Social Science Curriculum Project that teaches using method of social psychology to research human relations. This project is based on an approach that is potentially very powerful but that is startling in its simplicity. The strategy is to teach the research techniques of social psychology directly to the children using human relations content, including their own behavior.[5]

The essence of BSCS approach is to teach student to process information that uses the same techniques according to research of biologists that is to identify problems and use special methods to solve the problems.[6] BSCS uses some techniques to teach science as inquiry. First, it uses some questions that describe the original of science, like statement “we don’t know” and “we can’t find the answer why it happens.” Second, to place rhetoric as conclusion, BSCS uses narrative inquiry which describes mayor ideas about biology and follows inquiry subject accordance with areas. Third, it sets laboratory work to involve students in investigating problems, rather than explaining text. Fourth, the programs were designed in some blocksthat involve students in investigating biological problems clearly.[7]

Inquiry strategy according to Schwab (1965) is:

‘to show student how knowledge arises from the interpretation of data to show students that the interpretation of data-indeed, even the search for data-proceeds on the basis of concepts and assumptions that change as our knowledge grows…to show that as the principles and concepts change, knowledge changes too…to show students that though knowledge changes, it changes for a good reason-because we know better and more than we knew before. The converse of this point also needs stress: The possibility that present knowledge may be revised in the future does not mean that present knowledge is false. Present knowledge is science based on the best-tested facts and concepts we presently possess. It is the most reliable, rational knowledge of which man is capable.’


C. Theory of Curiosity and Inquiry Model

In 1960, Berlyne in Gagne stated a theory of Curiosity. According to him, uncertainty arises when we experience something new, shocking, or complex. It will raise high stimulus in our nervous system. Human’s response while facing a uncertainty is named curiosity or feeling to know. Curiosity will direct people to behavior that tries to decrease uncertainty. [8]

One of instructional methods that involve students’ curiosity is inquiry. In this method, students are more asked than being given answer. By proposing question, not only statements, student’s curiosity will improve because students experience uncertainty to answer of the questions.[9]

Haury in his article “Teaching Science through Inquiry” quoted definition given by Alfred Novak, that is “inquiry is behavior involved in human’s effort to rationally explain phenomena that provokes feeling to know. In another word, inquiry is concerned with activities and active skills that focus on inquiring knowledge or understanding to satisfy feeling to know.”[10]

Questions required in inquiry instruction method, Garton mentioned as essential questions, should fulfill the following characteristics.[11]

1.    can be questioned continuously;

2.    showing relation among some concepts in a subject;

3.    arising from effort to further learn about life, such as general question and opening further questions;

4.    directing to mayor concept of certain subject: to answer question how or why we know;

5.    giving stimulus and growing willingness to inquiry; involving student and raising curiosity;

6.    involving level of higher thinking;

7.    cannot be directly answered;

8.    cannot be only answered by one sentence.

Example of essential question in Quran Hadits is “How is Quran structured?” and “Why the interpretation of Quran is varied?”

In teaching process, teacher and student together develop other questions Garton called it unit questions, to answer essential questions. Characteristic of unit questions is to ask what concepts in subject of essential questions are, to help students answer essential questions more specifically. Example of unit questions is “what is the first Surat of Quran?” and “what is the translation of the first verse of Al-Fatihah?”


D. The Essence of Model Inquiry

Inquiry instruction is comprehended by Kuslan and Stone as “questioning and researching.” Sund and Gridge (1973) defined inquiry instruction as “instruction where teachers and students study scientific events with scientists’ approach and soul.” Gelly (1984) defined it as “process to find and research problems, structure hypothesis, plan experiment, collect data, and make conclusion from  result of breaking problems.” Oemar Hamdik (1999) defined it as “an activity that maximally involves all students’ ability systematically, critically, logically, analytically so that they can fully formulate the finding.”[12]

Inquiry model was developed by Suchman in 1962 through inquiry training. The goal of the development is “to teach students a process for investigating and explaining unusual phenomena”. The model is designed “to bring students directly into scientific process into small periods of time”. The effect of the model, according to Schlenker (1991) “resulted in increased understanding of science, productivity in creative thinking, and skills for obtaining and analyzing information.”[13]

Goal and assumption of inquiry training:

  1. Students inquire naturally when they are puzzled
  2. They can become conscious of and learn to analyze their thinking strategies.
  3. New strategies can be taught directly and added to the students’ existing ones.
  4. Cooperative inquiry enriches thinking and helps students to learn about the tentative, emergence nature of knowledge and to appreciate alternative explanations.[14]
    1. Student can be inquirer that is one who always ask and find to know.[15]

Inquiry training has five phases. The first is confrontation of students with the problem (explaining inquiry procedures and presenting discrepant events. The students are confronted with the puzzling situation. The second is data gathering of verification (verifying the nature of objects and conditions and verifying the occurrence of the problem situation). The students ask a series of questions to which the teacher replies yes or no. The third is data gathering of experimentation (isolating relevant variables and hypothesizing and testing causal relationship). The students conduct a series of experiments. The fourth is organizing, formulating an explanation (formulating rules of explanations). They organize the information they gathered during the data obtaining and try to explain the discrepancy. The last is analyzing the inquiry process (analyzing inquiry strategy and developing more effective ones. They analyze the problems-solving strategies they used during the inquiry.[16]

“The inquiry training model can be highly structured, with the teacher controlling the interaction and prescribing the inquiry procedures. However, the norms of inquiry are those of cooperation, intellectual freedom, and equality. Interaction among students should be encouraged.”[17]

The characteristic of Inquiry is:

1.         Using process skill

2.         Answer searched by students is not known firstly

3.         Students want to find problem solving

4.         Problem is founded with students’ problem-solving

5.         Hypothesis formulated by students is to counsel trial or experiment.

6.         Students propose methods of collecting data by collecting data, conducting observation, and reading or using other sources.

7.         Students conduct research individually or together to collect data needed to test hypothesis.

8.         Students process data so that they reach a conclusion.

There are some characteristics that become mayor characteristics of strategy of inquiry instruction. First, inquiry strategy is stressed on students’ activity to maximally search and find. It means inquiry approach positions students as learning subject. In process of teaching, students not only play role as receiver of lesson through teachers’ explanation verbally but also find core of lesson itself. Second, all activities done by students are directed to search and find answer by themselves from something questioned, so that it can grow self belief. It means inquiry approach positions teacher not as learning source, but as facilitator and motivator of students learning. Learning activities are usually done through question answer process between teachers and students so that teachers’ ability to use questioning technique is a mayor requirement in doing inquiry. Third, goal of using strategy of inquiry instruction develops intellectual ability as part of mental process. Consequently, inquiry student is not only demanded to master lesson, but also how they can use their potency.[18]

Usage of inquiry method will support students to get better understanding on science and they will be interested in science if they are actively involved in “doing” science. Investigation conducted by student is foundation of inquiry method. This investigation is focused on understanding science concepts and improving skill of students’ scientific thinking process. It is believed that understanding on process is result of the thinking process.[19]

The benefit of inquiry model is:

1.      Improving students’ intellectual potency;

2.      More focused on students’;

3.      Can form and improve students’ self-concept;

4.      Level of expectation adds;

5.      Can develop students’ talent.

6.      Avoiding students from ways of learning by memorizing.

7.      Giving time to students’ to assimilate and accommodate information.


E. Inquiry Model in Quran Hadits

Inquiry training was originally developed for the natural sciences but its procedures can be used in all subject areas. Any topic that can be regarded as puzzling situation is a candidate for inquiry training.[20] In Quran Hadits, inquiry model can be implemented. The model in Quran Hadits can be viewed on the following lesson plan.



Education Unit  : Madrasah Aliyah

Subject               : Al-Quran Hadits

Class/Semester   : X/1

Duration             : 2 hours of lesson


Standard Competence:

7. Understanding terms of Hadits


Base Competence:

1.1  Defining Hadits, Sunnah, Khabar, Atsar and Hadits Qudsi



1.    Showing definition of Hadits, Sunnah, Khabar, Atsar and Hadits Qudsi

2.    Explaining terminologically definition of Hadits

3.    Explaining terminologically definition of Sunnah

4.    Explaining terminologically definition of Khabar

5.    Explaining terminologically definition of Atsar

6.    Explaining terminologically definition of Hadits Qudsi




Instructional Goal is that Students Can:

1.        Show definition of Hadits, Sunnah, Khabar, Atsar, and Hadits Qudsi

2.        Explain terminologically definition of Hadits

3.        Explain terminologically definition of Sunnah

4.        Explain terminologically definition of Khabar

5.        Explain terminologically definition of Atsar

6.        Explain terminologically definition of Hadits Qudsi


Instructional Materials:

The Meaning of Hadits, Sunnah, Khabar, Atsar dan Hadis Qudsi

Duration          : 2 X 45 minutes


Instructional Method:

1.    Model         : Inquiry Model

2.    Method       :Lecturing, discussion, giving assignment, group work, and question-answer


Instructional Steps:


No. Instructional Steps:


Time Method Media
A Apperception 10 minutes    
  Teacher asks if students know meaning of Hadits      
B Core Activity 60 minutes    
  1.    Students are divided into five groups

2.    Each group is given sheet containing examples of Hadits, Sunnah, Khabar, Atsar, and Hadits Qudsi.

3.    Each group identifies some examples.

4.    Each group categorizes the examples into category of Hadits, Sunnah, Khabar, Atsar, and Hadits Qudsi.

5.    From the categorizing, each group concludes definition for Hadits, Sunnah, Khabar, Atsar, and Hadits Qudsi.

C Closing 15 menit    
  1.    Students orally respond teacher’s questions

2.    The teacher gives motivation to students to learn next material

3.    The teacher gives an individual task

4.    The teacher and students end the instruction by saying hamdallah




Instructional Tools and Source:

Pengantar Studi Ilmu Hadits, Syekh Manna’ Al-Qaththan

Kumpulan Hadis Qudsi

Buku al-Quran Hadis kelas X, Edisi KTSP


Instructional Achievement:

I. Process Assessment

II. Result Assessment

1.    Kind of Tagihan

a. Written Test

b. Task

2.    Instrument form

a.    Subjective Test

b.    Individual task




I. Process Assessment:

Assessment gathered from result of observation to students, viewed from their activity and involvement for process of instruction.



Give assessment by writing score 1 to 5 for each aspect of assessment, to measure positive students’ attitude

1.    Not very positive

2.    Less positive

3.    Positive enough

4.    Positive

5.    Very positive


Changing score to be students’ grade

Grade:      Number of score gathered by students X 100

Number of total score


Assessment criteria:

90-100 = Very good

75 – 89 = Good

65 – 74 = enough

50 – 64 = less

20 – 49 = very less





No. Name of Students Assessment Aspect Number of


Respond Discipline/

Students’ Activity

Cooperation Thorough






II. Result  Assessment

1.      Subjective Test

Answer the following questions!

a.       Explain definition of Hadits terminologically!

b.      Explain differentiation between Hadits and Sunnah!

c.       How is opinion of ulama about definition of Khabar and Atsar?

d.      Mention differentiation between Hadits Qudsi and al-Quran!

e.       Mention differentiation between Hadits Qudsi and Hadits Nabawi!

2.      Individual Task

Finding out examples of Hadits Nabawi and Hadits Qudsi from Hadits books or books containing Hadits review


F. Conclusion

The beginning study on inquiry model is a study conducted by Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS). The study connects inquiry model with natural science. Another beginning study is Michigan Social Science Curriculum Project. The project connects inquiry model with social science.

Inquiry instruction model is tightly related with theory of curiosity because both are accordance with searching, finding, and formulating knowledge. The students who implement the model will construct knowledge based on their understanding on the knowledge.

Inquiry model can be comprehended from the essence that is definition, characteristic, and goal. Inquiry model can be applied in Quran Hadits subject. The subject can improve Quran Hadits instruction.


Blosser, Patricia E. & Stanley L. Helgenson. Selecting Procedures for Improving the Science Curriculum. Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environment Education, 1990.

Gagne, D. Ellen. the Cognitive Psychology of School Learning. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1985.

Garton, Janetta. Inquiry-Based Learning. Boston: Willard R-II School District, Technology Integration Academy, 2005.

Haury, L. David. Teaching Science through Inquiry. Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environment Education, 1993.

Joyce, Bruce, et al. Models of Teaching.  Boston: Pearson Education, Inc., 2009.

Megawangi, Ratna, Melly Latifah, and Wahyu Farrah Dina. Pendidikan Holistik. Jakarta: Indonesia Heritage Foundation, 2005.

Sanjaya, Wina. Strategi Pembelajaran Berorientasi Standar Proses Pendidikan. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group, 2008.


[1]He is a student of Postgraduate Program State Islamic University Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung 2010/2011.

[2]Ratna Megawangi,, Pendidikan Holistik. (Jakarta: Indonesia Heritage Foundation, 2005), 64.

[3]Ratna, Pendidikan Holistik (Jakarta: Indonesia Heritage Foundation, 2005), 64-65.

[4]Bruce Joyce, et al., Models of Teaching, 8th ed.  (Boston: Pearson Education, Inc., 2009), 161.

[5]Joyce, Models of Teaching, 170.

[6]Joyce, Models of Teaching, 162.

[7]Joyce, Models of Teaching, 163.

[8]Ellen Gagne D., the Cognitive Psychology of School Learning (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1985), 56.

[9]Ellen Gagne D., the Cognitive Psychology of School Learning (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1985), 56.


[10]L. David Haury, Teaching Science through Inquiry (Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environment Education, 1993), 78.

[11]Janetta Garton, Inquiry-Based Learning (Boston: Willard R-II School District, Technology Integration Academy, 2005), 56.


[12] Gebi Dwiyanti, Model Pembelajaran Inkuiri (a scientific article presented on Educational Seminary, 2005), 1.

[13]Joyce, Models of Teaching, 175.

[14]Joyce, Models of Teaching, 176.

[15] Ratna, Pendidikan, 64-65.

[16]Joyce, Models of Teaching, 179.

[17]Joyce, Models of Teaching, 187.

[18]Wina Sanjaya, Strategi Pembelajaran Berorientasi Standar Proses Pendidikan (Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group, 2008), 65.

[19]Patricia E. Blosser & Stanley L. Helgenson, Selecting Procedures for Improving the Science Curriculum (Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environment Education, 1990), 47.

[20]Joyce, Models of Teaching, 182.

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